Dale Tuggy

Dale Tuggy is Professor of Philosophy at the State University of New York at Fredonia, where he teaches courses in analytic theology, philosophy of religion, religious studies, and the history of philosophy.


  1. Sean Garrigan
    September 30, 2017 @ 9:02 am

    Good point, Aaron. I can’t tell you how many times I’ve heard Ehrman assert that “the Trinity” is “explicitly taught at 1 John 5:7”. This is clearly the result of reading the text through the lens of later presuppositions.

  2. Aaron
    September 29, 2017 @ 12:39 pm

    I was thinking about how some people use 1st John 5:7 (the comma Johanneum) as a Trinitarian proof text. Putting aside the lack of manuscript witness and assuming the text to be original, the text seems to fall well short of being “Trinitarian.” The point of the passage is simply about an agreement of testimony. “The Father, the Word, and the Spirit” are said to “agree as one.” Much like a jury of 12 could agree as one, or a nation of people could agree as one. It is quite strange to think that John would suddenly be thinking in terms of the metaphysical oneness of the Trinity given how the passage flows. But when the paradigm of the doctrine of the Trinity is embedded into everything it is very easily read into NT texts.

    More simply put, the NT writers usually weren’t thinking about these lofty ontological things as it was rarely their point in writing. Instead, “…according to the New Testament, Father, Son and Spirit are not metaphysical and ontological statements about God in himself and his innermost nature, about a static being of the triune God resting in himself and not at all open to us. Rather, these are soteriological and christological statements about how God reveals himself through Jesus Christ in this world.” -Dale (Good summation)

    • Rivers
      October 2, 2017 @ 7:25 am

      Aaron & Sean,

      Agreed. Good comments.

      Rivers 🙂

    • Dale
      October 2, 2017 @ 8:38 pm

      Thanks – for brevity, I actually omitted H.K.’s discussion of 1 John 5:7 – of course, he says just what almost everyone say about it now. Unitarians led the charge or that one, though, back in the 1700s and 1800s, after Erasmus undid his textual discovery, pressured by the establishment.