Dale Tuggy

Dale Tuggy is Professor of Philosophy at the State University of New York at Fredonia, where he teaches courses in analytic theology, philosophy of religion, religious studies, and the history of philosophy.


  1. Mario Stratta
    August 20, 2017 @ 3:22 am

    Bingo, Benji!

    That should have been enough to make him a suspect “reformer” to anybody with a healthy mind.

    Here is my more extensive article, at my blog Strict Monotheism: Martin Luther’s warped “gospel”.

    • Benjamin Scott
      August 20, 2017 @ 7:27 pm

      I read the article. It’s clear that Luther lead a lot of people in the wrong direction. I can agree with his Sola Scriptura, but his understanding of the Bible is really twisted and disjointed. The voice comes from heaven, “This is my beloved Son, listen to him.” Luther says that Jesus came to die so we wouldn’t have to listen to him. Whom should I trust? I think I’ll go with Jesus. Of course that’s difficult because Jesus had hard words to tell us. But I prefer difficult truths over easy lies. Yes, Jesus preached His own gospel. If someone can’t find the gospel in all four of the gospels then they have a problem, 2Jn. 9.

      • Mario Stratta
        August 21, 2017 @ 3:41 am


        I believe that the Catholic Church, since the earliest warnings of the impending “Lutheran crisis”, had been reluctant to take the bull by the horns, i.e. to examine (and possibly condemn) some of Augustine’s texts from which Luther’s thought was drawn. And I believe that this reluctance is based on the simple reason that the Church was perfectly aware that putting Augustine into question threatened to inevitably involve putting Paul into question. This would have been simply unthinkable, and in any case disallowed, given the inspired – and therefore canonical – character of Paul’s texts, which the Church could not put into question, even for a moment. Otherwise the consequences would have been even worse than those caused by Luther’s challenge.

        • Benjamin Scott
          August 23, 2017 @ 1:27 am

          I’m less familiar with what Augustine said which may have inspired those ideas in Luther? I’ve tended towards thinking that Luther was rather novel in his approach, whilst under the influence of the via moderna. I know that Augustine gave the RCC the original defense of their imperial kingdom of God on earth, which they needed to justify their existence. He was far too central a figure to their own theology to criticize him. In the East he was much more controversial.

          It seems that a careful reading of Paul should have been something that they were able to do throughout history. I feel like the NP on Paul in some form or another is just rather transparently obvious in the Biblical text itself and I always thought it was Protestants more than Catholics who had a problem with what Paul seemed to be saying. Maybe I’m misinformed. I am admittedly not well versed in Catholic theology. Obviously the Pope had his treasury of merits, so somewhere in Catholic theology lurked the idea that merit could be transferred from one person to another. Maybe they wanted their cake and eat it too? It seems that if so, the split was inevitable.

  2. Benjamin Scott
    August 20, 2017 @ 1:01 am

    Great post Dale. We don’t prefer to think of temptation in the way Jas. 1:12-13 urges us to. When tempted we feel like something is wrong, but if we can endure it then something is very right. That’s when we get past the ups and downs of failure and repentance and abide in repentance as repentance truly requires. Know Jesus is a trailblazer for us and that he’s sent us another helper to be with us forever, makes all the difference in the world. We can endure temptation just as he did.

  3. Muse Gele
    August 19, 2017 @ 3:47 am

    “He _will_ be dramatically saved by God” ?

    Saved from execution at the hands of the Romans perhaps?

    • Dale
      August 20, 2017 @ 3:02 pm

      One might suppose that, and countless Muslims do. But according to the NT, what Jesus got was incomparably better than rescue from the cross. Read Philippians 2 and Revelation 5.

  4. Matt13weedhacker
    August 18, 2017 @ 1:47 pm

    James 1:13 Weymouth New Testament
    “Let no one say when passing through trial, “My temptation is from God;” for God is in-capable of being tempted to do evil, and He Himself tempts no one.”

    James 1:13 uses the word Gk., ( APEIRASTOS ) Strongs no: 551 literally meaning: “un-tempt-able” or: “in-capable of being tempted”.

    It’s an alpha privative. When the Greeks wanted to negative a word, or give an opposite meaning, they would simply stick an Gk., ( A ) on the front https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alpha_privative.

    Gk., ( APEIRASTOS ) is made up of Gk., ( PEIRAZO ) meaning: “try” “tempt” “test” or: “susceptible to enticement/allurement” with such a Greek Alpha, Gk., ( A ) prefixed to the front.

    It is saying that whoever God is, He is IN-CAPABLE of being “tempted”. UN-TEMPT-ABLE.

    With all obvious implications for Tri{3}ntarian theory/doctrine.

  5. Mario Stratta
    August 17, 2017 @ 4:36 pm

    There is one who completely misunderstood the Gospel. Here are two quotations regarding the Gospel from his early works.

    – [The first function of the Gospel] is to interpret the ancient Law, as the Lord [Jesus] interprets that precept in Matthew 5, You shall not swear, you shall not murder, you shall not commit adultery’, so as to transfer us form a literal to a spiritual interpretation. […] This interpretation of the law according to the spirit, though, is even more lethal, because it makes the Law impossible to fulfil, and as a consequence it makes man desperate about his own capacity, and humiliated, because nobody is without wrath, nobody without concupiscence: in fact that is the way we are from birth.

    – The improper task of the Gospel is to prepare for the Lord a perfect assembly, that is, to make manifest their sins, and convince of guilt all those, who thought they were just, when it says, that all are sinners and devoid of God’s grace. This, though, seems to be the worst news, whereby, it would be more proper to call it … bad and sad announcement.

    Beautiful reward for whoever guesses right the author. 😉

    (Hint: he could not stand James …)

    • Benjamin Scott
      August 20, 2017 @ 12:54 am

      Sounds like Martin Luther. I say that just based off your hint. I can’t agree with his quotes. He really misunderstands Jesus badly. Jesus said that those who followed his teachings were building their lives on the rock. Sadly, many throughout history have wanted to explain away the teachings of Jesus rather than to follow them. Seems a common trend with religious leaders. People prefer to worship them as gods rather than follow them as a men.