Dale Tuggy

Dale Tuggy is Professor of Philosophy at the State University of New York at Fredonia, where he teaches courses in analytic theology, philosophy of religion, religious studies, and the history of philosophy.


  1. Roman
    September 2, 2015 @ 10:15 am

    A big problem with Perfect Being Theology is that any attribute of God only makes sense within the context of his creation.

    So for example being Omniscient only makes sense if there are things outside one’s self to know, being omnipotent only makes sense if there are things outside one’s self to Act on. In fact I don’t know if God can even be called God or Yahweh outside of the context of his creation, Yahweh means he causes to become, without creation God hasn’t caused anything to become, God as a term is relational, so outside creation God is simply what is, there is nothing to differentiate him with, there is only him, thus you can’t really give him any attributes.

    So when you get to the all loving, or God being love, that only makes sense within creation, he loves his creation, if you say he needs to be love in himself, rather than in relation to creation, since we are talking about perfect being theology, it would presume that the attributes of God have any meaning outside creation, which I would argue they do not. So trying to posit a multipersonal being in order to try and fulfill that attribute is meaningless, you might as well argue that God is a being including different heiarchies since how could be be omnipotent if there was nothing for him to control over outside of creation, it’s just nonsense.

    So Perfect Being theology ONLY makes sense within the context of creation, outside that context there is nothing really one can say about God at all, God is Love, God is omniscient, God is Omnipresent, God is eternal, all within the context of creation, none of those things make any sense outside of creation.


  2. Miguel de Servet
    September 1, 2015 @ 10:39 am

    Quick answers:

    1. [a] Where does this method [PBT] come from? [b] Is it found in the
    Bible?>>[a] from (heathen) philosophy; [b] nope

    2. Is God timeless, or does he exist at all times?>>timeless, nevertheless he can and does interact in time a nd space with His creation

    3. Is God both male and female? Or is God neither?>>neither, nevertheless in the OT God is mostly represented as (an old) man, and in the virgin birth He certainly chooses to play the Father part

    4. How can God be both omnipotent and perfectly good? Aren’t these “perfections” contrary to one another?>>perfect justice and boundless mercy are certainly difficult to reconcile

    5. Must God always do the best?>>depends whether we refer to an “itemized best” or a “compound best”

    6. Can we argue that if God is perfect, he must be tri-personal, or at least
    multi-personal? Can we argue for the Trinity from divine love, and/or the idea that a “unipersonal” god would be lonely?>>amusing questions, issuing from overwrought trinitarian apologists


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