Dale Tuggy

Dale Tuggy is Professor of Philosophy at the State University of New York at Fredonia, where he teaches courses in analytic theology, philosophy of religion, religious studies, and the history of philosophy.


  1. Matt13weedhacker
    July 15, 2015 @ 7:05 pm

    The plural could just as easily be referring back to the Ltn., “ecclesia”, the “church”, (actually) “congregation,” or “assembly”. Referring back to the: “men of holy spirit”, i.e. the congregated group of people, (i.e. plural), gathered together.

    One has to think in Montantist terms to understand what he’s saying here, (De Pudictita), and where he’s coming from. Take careful note of the “Them” and “Us”, (or the general you vs I, they vs we etc language), differentiation throughout this Anti-Christian, (backslash defense of a false-prophet and prophetesses), tract, to get the sense of it. That’s always a good place to start.

    According to Tertullian’s existing Montantist works, (generally), the “Paraclete”, was, (to him – not me), present in Montanus, Maximilla, Priscilla.

    Notice how, (in the context above i.e. De Pudictita), he mentions: “men [i.e. plural] of the Holy Ghost either an apostle or a prophet.” When he mentions a “prophet” or prophets, that should be a red flag. That’s more than likely a Montantist, (i.e. “NEW PROPHECY” cult), indicator. I’ll admit this depends on the context, (of course), but more often than not; when he mentions a “prophet” or prophets, he is giving either, an overt, or veiled reference, (or allusion), to the “holy” prophet’s or prophetesses of: “THE NEW PROPHECY” movement. See how he uses: “Prophecy” and the “Prophets” and “gifts” “they” “them” and “we” “us” “I” etc in Adv. Prax. chapter 1 for example.

    And remember, we are not talking about “Orthodox”, (used in the general sense), or mainstream “Christian,” beliefs here. The Montantist movement, (most likely), did not have a uniform, (definitely not a totally consistent at least), system of belief. The reality, was more probably like today’s sects. Where belief’s systems vary from congregation to congregation, (from “church” to “church”), from study group to study group, and vary from individual to individual.

    Also we have to remember that we are are looking at a very sophisticated individual in the person of Tertullian. In all probability, Tertullian’s intricate belief’s, (most likely), did not represent the average Montantist. He probably took Montanus’ “revelations” and ran with them, (meaning inside his head). And possibly seeing himself as the champion of the Motnantist movement, (it must be admitted that they found a powerful philosophical and literary weapon in Tertullian), made a great and “esteemed”, (from a Montantist perspective), effort to reconcile these so-called “NEW” prophecies, with 1. his own philosophical system; and 2. with mainstream Christianity, (from which he had separated himself). Thus attempting to give his beloved “NEW PROPHECY,” a new form, a new outlook, and more respectable appearance to the “Physci”, (the sincere but misguided out-siders = to him).

    Jerome gives a possible hint, that Tertullian may have been viewed as their champion, when he says:

    Chapter 24, of Jeromes “De Viris Illustribus,” or history: “On Illustrious Men,”

    LATIN TEXT: “…quos scripsit adversus Ecclesiam pro Montano…”

    “…which he wrote as an enemy against the Church [Or: “Congregation” “Assembly” i.e. of
    believers “Ecclessia”] for [Or: “on behalf of” “in favour of”] Montanus…”

    JEROME (circa. 347-420 C.E.): “…Melito of Asia, bishop of Sardis, addressed a book to the emperor Marcus Antoninus Verus, a disciple of Fronto the orator, in behalf of the Christian doctrine. He wrote other things also, among which are the following: On the passover, two books, one book On the lives of the prophets, one book On the church, one book On the Lord’s day, one book On faith, one book On the psalms (?) one On the senses, one On the soul and body, one On baptism, one On truth, — one On the generation of Christ, — On His prophecy one On hospitality and another
    which is called the Key – one On the devil, one On the Apocalypse of John, one On the corporeality of God, and six books of Eclogues. Of his fine oratorical genius, TERTULLIAN, IN THE SEVEN BOOKS WHICH HE WROTE AGAINST THE CHURCH ON BEHALF OF MONTANUS, satirically says that he was considered a prophet by many of ( us ) [= Montantists]…” – (Chapter 24, “De Viris Illustribus,” or: “On Illustrious Men,” Translated by Ernest Cushing Richardson. From Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Second Series, Vol. 3. Edited by Philip Schaff and Henry Wace. Buffalo, NY: Christian Literature Publishing Co., 1892.)

    For a side point, cross reference Jerome’s reference about Melito’s: “On the Generation of Christ”

    Where Eusebius, (from whom Jerome got a lot of his historical information), said this instead:

    Gk., ( ???? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ) Ltn., ( De Creatione et Generatione Christi )

    “…One the Creation and Generation ( of ) Christ…”

    = Book 4, chapter 26, Section 2, Eusebius of Caesarea “Ecclesiastical History”.


  2. Matt13weedhacker
    July 15, 2015 @ 5:22 pm

    Coining/Inventing new words, and Tertullian.

    Page 239, Subheading: “The Historical Development of the Doctrine,” Chapter 12,“The Doctrine of the Trinity,” Section 2: “Christian Theology,” in the Book: “Christian Theology: An Introduction,”
    By Alister E. McGrath, Welley-Blackwell, 5th Edition, 2011, comments:

    “…The theologian who may be argued to have been responsible for the development of the distinctive trinitarian terminology is Tertullian (c. 160-225). According to one analysis, Tertullian ( coined ) 509
    new nouns, 284 new adjectives, and 161 new verbs in the Latin language.[…] Trinitas. Tertullian ( invented ) the word: “Trinity” (Trinitas), which has become so characteristic a feature of Christian theology since his time…”

    509 new nouns.

    284 new adjectives.

    161 new verbs.


  3. Matt13weedhacker
    July 15, 2015 @ 2:52 pm

    Some historical context on: “De Pudicitia” that you may, (or may not), find interesting.

    Chapter 53, of Jeromes:

    “De Viris Illustribus,” or history: “On Illustrious Men,”

    LATIN TEXT: “…in multis libris Novae Prophetiae meminit, specialiter autem adversum Ecclesiam texuit volumina DE PUDICITIA, de persecutione, de jejuniis, de monogamia, de ecstasi libros sex, et septimum, quem adversum Apollonium composuit. Ferturque vixisse usque ad decrepitam aetatem, et multa, quae non exstant opuscula condidisse…”

    “…In the vast multitude of his volumes he does not neglect to mention: “The New Prophecy”, but,
    (lo and behold), he specifically contrived to write against the Church the volumes: “ON MODESTY,” “On Persecution,” “On Fasts,” “On Monogamy,” six books: “On Ecstasy,” and a seventh one, which he composed in a particularly hostile way: “Against Apollonius,”. He is reported to have lived to a very old age, and a great many smaller works which he made, are no longer extant…”


    • Matt13weedhacker
      July 15, 2015 @ 2:57 pm

      Corroborating evidence, (to some extent), for Jerome’s statement is found in the book, (“De Pudicitia”), itself.

      TERTULLIAN OF CARTHAGE (circa.145-225 C.E.)

      “De Pudicitia” or: “On Modesty” Chapter 2:10

      “…Now — this Tract — against — the Psychi [ = Christian Congregation ] can even be said to be directed against me, because earlier I was [ = past tense ] one of them, and so they [ = real Christians ] much more reproach me with this fact as a proof of inconstancy. But never was the refusal of communication a testimony of a fault. As if it were not easier to err with the multitude [ = Christian Congregation ] but a minority [ = the Montantist Cult ] loves truth…”


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