Dale Tuggy

Dale Tuggy is Professor of Philosophy at the State University of New York at Fredonia, where he teaches courses in analytic theology, philosophy of religion, religious studies, and the history of philosophy.

One Comment

  1. Xavier
    May 10, 2012 @ 5:34 pm


    “Serve” here, I think, clearly signifies religious worship specifically.

    You’re right. The Septuagint translates the Hebrew abad as latrevo, sacred/religious service. This word is also used in the same context in the NT, reserved for God alone:

    * in a religious sense to worship God (Mat 4:10; Luk 1:74; 2:37; 4:8; Act 7:7; 24:14; 27:23; Rom 1:9; Phi 3:3; 2Ti 1:3; Heb 9:14; 12:28; Rev 22:3);

    * used in an absolute sense (Act 26:7; Sept.: Deu 6:13; 10:12; Jos 24:15);

    * “worshipping creatures [other] than the Creator”, in other words, assuming Deity (Rom 1:25; Sept.: Deu 4:28; Jdg 2:11, 13);

    * particularly to the performing of the Levitical service (Heb 8:5; 9:9; 10:2; 13:10);
    of the celestial temple (Rev 7:15);

    * to offer sacrifice, to worship (Heb 9: 9; 10:2; cf. Sept.: Ex 3:12; 7:16).

    So it should be noted that this TYPE of religious/sacred service is NEVER applied to Jesus in the NT [see Wainright, The Trinity in the New Testament, p 103; Dunn, The Theology of Paul the Apostle, p 257-260]

    But very often in the New Testament, it is not the above concept which is in view.

    How do you account for the fact that the Davidic king is worshipped [1Chro 29.20] and sang hymns to [Ps 45] in the OT?

    it is appropriate to worship Jesus. And no, it is not idolatry, for it is in obedience to his and our God.

    So if YHWH authorizes the worship it is not a sin? As He does with many other people in the Bible?


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